În cele mai multe „proiecte„ publice, „experții„ trebuie să fie cît mai certificați. Cu cît mai multe certificări, cu atît mai mult cresc șansele de „succes„. De obicei, cerințele legate de certificări sînt „combinații de N luate cîte K„. Nu cred că este cazul să intru în alte detalii….
Am văzut de exemplu, în cazul unei cereri de servicii de audit, că trebuie musai să existe un manager de proiect care „coordoneaza echipa de auditori cooptati pentru realizarea proiectului„.
Sau în cazul unei implementări, un expert care să fie CISA+CISM sau „echivalent„ pentru a fi „political correct„. (CISSP pentru CISM chiar dacă CISSP este „tehnic„ pe cînd CISM, după cum spune și numele este „management„ 🙂 ).
Sau un „pen tester„ care să fie certificat CEH sau OSCP + Security Analyst + LPT. Binînțeles sau „echivalent„.
Ce cunoștințe deține un CISA? Dar un CISM? Cînd este nevoie de „ambele„? Chiar este nevoie?
|Domeniul 1: The Process of Auditing Information Systems||Domeniul 1: : Information Security Governance|
|· Develop and implement a risk-based IT audit strategy in compliance with IT audit standards to ensure that key areas are included.
· Plan specific audits to determine whether information systems are protected, controlled and provide value to the organization.
· Conduct audits in accordance with IT audit standards to achieve planned audit objectives.
· Report audit findings and make recommendations to key stakeholders to communicate results and effect change when necessary.
· Conduct follow-ups or prepare status reports to ensure appropriate actions have been taken by management in a timely manner.
|· Establish and maintain an information security strategy in alignment with organizational goals and objectives to guide the establishment and ongoing management of the information security program.
· Establish and maintain an information security governance framework to guide activities that support the information security strategy.
· Integrate information security governance into corporate governance to ensure that organizational goals and objectives are supported by the information security program.
· Obtain commitment from senior management and support from other stakeholders to maximize the probability of successful implementation of the information security strategy.
· Define and communicate the roles and responsibilities of information security throughout the organization to establish clear accountabilities and lines of authority.
· Establish, monitor, evaluate and report metrics (for example, key goal indicators [KGIs], key performance indicators [KPIs], key risk indicators [KRIs]) to provide management with accurate information regarding the effectiveness of the information security strategy.
|Domeniul 2: IT Governance and Management of IT||Domeniul 2: Information Risk Management and Compliance|
|· Evaluate the effectiveness of the IT governance structure to determine whether IT decisions, directions and performance support the organization’s strategies and objectives.
· Evaluate IT organizational structure and human resources (personnel) management to determine whether they support the organization’s strategies and objectives.
· Evaluate the IT strategy, including the IT direction, and the processes for the strategy’s development, approval, implementation and maintenance for alignment with the organization’s strategies and objectives.
· Evaluate the organization’s IT policies, standards and procedures, and the processes for their development, approval, implementation, maintenance and monitoring, to determine whether they support the IT strategy and comply with regulatory and legal requirements.
· Evaluate the adequacy of the quality management system to determine whether it supports the organization’s strategies and objectives in a cost-effective manner.
· Evaluate IT management and monitoring of controls (e.g., continuous monitoring, quality assurance [QA]) for compliance with the organization’s policies, standards and procedures.
· Evaluate IT resource investment, use and allocation practices, including prioritization criteria, for alignment with the organization’s strategies and objectives.
· Evaluate IT contracting strategies and policies, and contract management practices to determine whether they support the organization’s strategies and objectives.
· Evaluate risk management practices to determine whether the organization’s IT-related risks are properly managed.
· Evaluate monitoring and assurance practices to determine whether the board and executive management receive sufficient and timely information about IT performance.
· Evaluate the organization’s business continuity plan to determine the organization’s ability to continue essential business operations during the period of an IT disruption.
|· Establish and maintain a process for information asset classification to ensure that measures taken to protect assets are proportional to their business value.
· Identify legal, regulatory, organizational and other applicable requirements to manage the risk of noncompliance to acceptable levels.
· Ensure that risk assessments, vulnerability assessments and threat analyses are conducted periodically and consistently to identify risk to the organization’s information.
· Determine appropriate risk treatment options to manage risk to acceptable levels.
· Evaluate information security controls to determine whether they are appropriate and effectively mitigate risk to an acceptable level.
· Identify the gap between current and desired risk levels to manage risk to an acceptable level.
· Integrate information risk management into business and IT processes (for example, development, procurement, project management, mergers and acquisitions) to promote a consistent and comprehensive information risk management process across the organization.
· Monitor existing risk to ensure that changes are identified and managed appropriately.
· Report noncompliance and other changes in information risk to appropriate management to assist in the risk management decision-making process.
|Domeniul 3: Information Systems, Acquisition, Development and Implementation||Domeniul 3: Information Security Program Development and Management|
|· Evaluate the business case for proposed investments in information systems acquisition, development, maintenance and subsequent retirement to determine whether it meets business objectives.
· Evaluate the project management practices and controls to determine whether business requirements are achieved in a cost-effective manner while managing risks to the organization.
· Conduct reviews to determine whether a project is progressing in accordance with project plans, is adequately supported by documentation and status reporting is accurate.
· Evaluate controls for information systems during the requirements, acquisition, development and testing phases for compliance with the organization’s policies, standards, procedures and applicable external requirements.
· Evaluate the readiness of information systems for implementation and migration into production to determine whether project deliverables, controls and the organization’s requirements are met.
· Conduct post-implementation reviews of systems to determine whether project deliverables, controls and the organization’s requirements are met.
|· Establish and maintain the information security program in alignment with the information security strategy.
· Ensure alignment between the information security program and other business functions (for example, human resources [HR], accounting, procurement and IT) to support integration with business processes.
· Identify, acquire, manage and define requirements for internal and external resources to execute the information security program.
· Establish and maintain information security architectures (people, process, technology) to execute the information security program.
· Establish, communicate and maintain organizational information security standards, procedures, guidelines and other documentation to support and guide compliance with information security policies.
· Establish and maintain a program for information security awareness and training to promote a secure environment and an effective security culture.
· Integrate information security requirements into organizational processes (for example, change control, mergers and acquisitions, development, business continuity, disaster recovery) to maintain the organization’s security baseline.
· Integrate information security requirements into contracts and activities of third parties (for example, joint ventures, outsourced providers, business partners, customers) to maintain the organization’s security baseline.
· Establish, monitor and periodically report program management and operational metrics to evaluate the effectiveness and efficiency of the information security program.
|Domeniul 4: Information Systems, Operations, Maintenance and Support||Domeniul 4: Information Security Incident Management|
|· Conduct periodic reviews of information systems to determine whether they continue to meet the organization’s objectives.
· Evaluate service level management practices to determine whether the level of service from internal and external service providers is defined and managed.
· Evaluate third-party management practices to determine whether the levels of controls expected by the organization are being adhered to by the provider.
· Evaluate operations and end-user procedures to determine whether scheduled and nonscheduled processes are managed to completion.
· Evaluate the process of information systems maintenance to determine whether they are controlled effectively and continue to support the organization’s objectives.
· Evaluate data administration practices to determine the integrity and optimization of databases.
· Evaluate the use of capacity and performance monitoring tools and techniques to determine whether IT services meet the organization’s objectives.
· Evaluate problem and incident management practices to determine whether incidents, problems or errors are recorded, analyzed and resolved in a timely manner.
· Evaluate change, configuration and release management practices to determine whether scheduled and nonscheduled changes made to the organization’s production environment are adequately controlled and documented.
· Evaluate the adequacy of backup and restore provisions to determine the availability of information required to resume processing
· Evaluate the organization’s disaster recovery plan to determine whether it enables the recovery of IT processing capabilities in the event of a disaster.
|· Establish and maintain an organizational definition of, and severity hierarchy for, information security incidents to allow accurate identification of and response to incidents.
· Establish and maintain an incident response plan to ensure an effective and timely response to information security incidents.
· Develop and implement processes to ensure the timely identification of information security incidents.
· Establish and maintain processes to investigate and document information security incidents to be able to respond appropriately and determine their causes while adhering to legal, regulatory and organizational requirements.
· Establish and maintain incident escalation and notification processes to ensure that the appropriate stakeholders are involved in incident response management.
· Organize, train and equip teams to effectively respond to information security incidents in a timely manner.
· Test and review the incident response plan periodically to ensure an effective response to information security incidents and to improve response capabilities.
· Establish and maintain communication plans and processes to manage communication with internal and external entities.
· Conduct postincident reviews to determine the root cause of information security incidents, develop corrective actions, reassess risk, evaluate response effectiveness and take appropriate remedial actions.
· Establish and maintain integration among the incident response plan, disaster recovery plan and business continuity plan.
|Domeniul 5: Protection of Information|
|· Evaluate the information security policies, standards and procedures for completeness and alignment with generally accepted practices.
· Evaluate the design, implementation and monitoring of system and logical security controls to verify the confidentiality, integrity and availability of information
· Evaluate the design, implementation and monitoring of the data classification processes and procedures for alignment with the organization’s policies, standards, procedures and applicable external requirements.
· Evaluate the design, implementation and monitoring of physical access and environmental controls to determine whether information assets are adequately safeguarded.
· Evaluate the processes and procedures used to store, retrieve, transport and dispose of information assets (e.g., backup media, offsite storage, hard copy/print data and softcopy media) to determine whether information assets are adequately safeguarded.
· Knowledge of the techniques for the design, implementation, and monitoring of security controls, including security awareness programs
· Knowledge of processes related to monitoring and responding to security incidents (e.g., escalation procedures, emergency incident response team)
· Knowledge of logical access controls for the identification, authentication and restriction of users to authorized functions and data
· Knowledge of the security controls related to hardware, system software (e.g., applications, operating systems), and database management systems.
· Knowledge of risks and controls associated with virtualization of systems
· Knowledge of the configuration, implementation, operation and maintenance of network security controls
· Knowledge of network and Internet security devices, protocols, and techniques
· Knowledge of information system attack methods and techniques
· Knowledge of detection tools and control techniques (e.g., malware, virus detection, spyware)
· Knowledge of security testing techniques (e.g., intrusion testing, vulnerability scanning)
· Knowledge of risks and controls associated with data leakage
· Knowledge of encryption-related techniques
· Knowledge of public key infrastructure (PKI) components and digital signature techniques
· Knowledge of risks and controls associated with peer-to-peer computing, instant messaging, and web-based technologies (e.g., social networking, message boards, blogs)
· Knowledge of controls and risks associated with the use of mobile & wireless devices
· Knowledge of voice communications security (e.g., PBX, VoIP)
· Knowledge of the evidence preservation techniques and processes followed in forensics investigations (e.g., IT, process, chain of custody)
· Knowledge of data classification standards and supporting procedures
· Knowledge of physical access controls for the identification, authentication and restriction of users to authorized facilities
· Knowledge of environmental protection devices and supporting practices
· Knowledge of the processes and procedures used to store, retrieve, transport and dispose of confidential information assets